How to use the ophthalmoscope
Ophthalmoscopy is used to examine the refractive medium (cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous body) and fundus (optic disc, retina, and choroid) of the eye. It is a commonly used inspection method in ophthalmology. It is mainly used for vitreous, optic disc, retina, choroid and other parts of the disease, as well as some systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, blood disease, kidney disease and other fundus lesions. ?So. How to operate the direct ophthalmoscope? Let's take a look together!
1. Turn the ophthalmoscope turntable at the beginning of the inspection, first use +8D~+10D lenses, and the ophthalmoscope is 10~20cm away from the eye to be inspected. Examination of the refractive media of the eye by transillumination. From front to back, check the cornea, lens, and vitreous body respectively. Under normal circumstances, the pupil area presents an orange-red reflection, and if there is turbidity in the refractive media, black shadows appear in the red reflection. At this time, ask the subject to turn the eyeball, and judge the cloudy refractive interstitium according to the relationship between the moving direction of the dark shadow and the eyeball turning direction. 2. When examining the fundus, place the ophthalmoscope about 2 cm in front of the subject's eye. According to the refraction state of the examiner and the subject's eye, rotate the ophthalmoscope dial until the fundus can be seen clearly.
3. During the examination, ask the examinee to look straight ahead. The light source of the ophthalmoscope passes through the pupil at about 15° to the nasal side to check the optic disc, and then walk along the blood vessels to observe the posterior pole of the retina. Finally, ask the examinee to look at the light of the inspection mirror to check the macula. . To observe the peripheral retina, ask the subject to turn the eyeball to expand the scope of observation.
4. The records of the fundus examination include the description of the optic disc, retinal blood vessels, macula and other parts based on the anatomical structure of the fundus. The size of the lesion can be described by the diameter of the optic disc and blood vessels, and the height of the lesion can be described by the diopter.
Precautions for using direct ophthalmoscope
Ophthalmoscopy is used to examine the refractive medium (cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous body) and fundus (optic disc, retina, and choroid) of the eye. It is a commonly used inspection method in ophthalmology. It is mainly used for vitreous, optic disc, retina, choroid and other parts of the disease, as well as some systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, blood disease, kidney disease and other fundus lesions. However, there are some precautions in the inspection process of direct ophthalmoscope! Let's take a look below! Matters needing attention:
1. What you see under the direct ophthalmoscope is not the actual size of the fundus, and what you see on inspection is 14 to 16 times magnified than the actual object image.
2. To observe changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer, it should be observed under red-free light.
3. At the end of the inspection, the turntable of the ophthalmoscope should be turned to 0 to prevent the lens on the turntable from being polluted.
4. The pupils may not be dilated during general examination. When you want to check the fundus in detail, you need to check after the pupil is dilated.
5. Direct ophthalmoscopy has a small observation range, and the opacity of the refractive media can affect the observation of the fundus.
6. Patients with suspected angle-closure glaucoma or those with a shallow anterior chamber should be extra cautious when dilating their pupils to avoid the onset of angle-closure glaucoma.
7. For those with high refractive errors, direct ophthalmoscopy is more difficult, and indirect ophthalmoscopy can be used for inspection.